The Proceedings of
The Tenth (2013) ISOPE

Szczecin, Poland, September 22-26, 2013



ISBN 978-1‑880653‑92-0

ISSN 1946-0066

Indexed by Engineering Index, Compendex and Others

International Society of
Offshore and Polar Engineers;

The Proceedings of
The Tenth (2013) ISOPE

Szczecin, Poland, September 22-26, 2013



   Mining Systems, Ship, Pipe, Nodule Lift, Buffer, Link, Oceanfloor Miner, and Miner Control
   Fundamentals, Properties, Geotechnical and Geochemical Characteristics, Development

How to Use This Table of Contents

Scroll down or use the links in the left-side frame to move to a new location in this index.

Click on a blue paper title you would like to view.

To return to this index after viewing a paper, click on the appropriate link in the left-side frame.

This CD-ROM was created from the author-made PDF files. View quality of the text and graphics and the ease of readability depend largely on the quality and/or consistency of the PDF-making procedure the authors used.

ISBN 978-1-880653-92-0

ISSN 1946-0066

Indexed by Engineering Index, Compendex and Others;

edited by:

Jin S. Chung, ISOPE, Cupertino, California, USA
Takeshi Komai, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan

presented at:

The Tenth (2013) ISOPE Ocean Mining & Gas Hydrates Symposium held in Szczecin, Poland, September 22-26, 2013

organized by:

International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers (ISOPE)

sponsored by:

International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers (ISOPE)

The publisher and the editors of its publications assume no responsibility for the statements or opinions
expressed in papers or presentations by the contributors to this conference or proceedings.

International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers (ISOPE)
P.O. Box 189, Cupertino, California 95015–0189  USA



1Third-Generation Commercial Mining System Development for Manganese Nodules: Direct-to- vs. Incremental-to-5,000-m Approach

Jin S Chung

5Tailings and their Disposal in Deep-Sea Mining (Invited)

Gerd Schriever, Hjalmar Thiel

18Baselines Data Support for Developing of Environmentally Sound Nodule Mining Systems

Valcana Stoyanova


22Seamount and Cobalt-Platinum rich Fe-Mn Crust Resources in the Indian Ocean

G S Roonwal

27Variability and Accuracy of Polymetallic Nodules Abundance Estimations in the IOM Area − Statistical and Geostatistical Approach

Jacek Mucha, Monika Wasilewska-Błaszczyk, Ryszard Andrzej Kotliński, Łukasz Maciąg

32Exploration of Polymetallic Nodule Using AUV in the Central Equatorial Pacific

Masatsugu Okazaki, Akira Tsune

39Geochemistry of Molybdenum Element in Co-rich Crusts from the Magellan Seamounts and Tracing of Paleoceanographic Environment

Guoqing You , Jiahua Pan, Wenhong Sun, Shuqin Liu

48Grain Size of the Seabed Sediments Underlying Polymetallic Nodules in the Exploration Area of Interoceanmetal

Ivo Dreiseitl, Roman Bednarek, Cyprian Seul

53The Contouring Accuracy of Polymetallic Nodules Ore Fields in the Interoceanmetal (IOM) Area, East Pacific Ocean

Jacek Mucha, Monika Wasilewska-Błaszczyk


Gas Hydrates — Fundamentals

58Influence of Cation for Cage Occupancy from Small Cage Competition with Methane at Natural Gas Hydrates in Real Sediments

Juwoon Park, Sun-Hwa Yeon, Jiwoong Seol, Dong-Yeun Koh, Young-ju Seo, Keun-Pil Park, Dae-Gee Huh, Jaehyoung Lee, Huen Lee

63Axial Symmetrical Thermal Conduction and Phase Transformations in THF Hydrate-Bearing Sediments

Xu Hui Zhang, Xiao Bing Lu, Shi Yao Hong, Xia Zhen

69Origin of Gases from Gas Hydrate in the Qilian Mountain Permafrost, Qinghai: Comparison of Gas Composition and Carbon Isotopes

Zhengquan Lu, Xiaohua Xue, Zewen Liao, Hui Liu

76Spectroscopic Explanation of Metastablity in Gas Hydrate Formation

Dongwook Lim, Woongchul Shin, Seongmin Park, Hyeyoon Ro, Dong-Yeun Koh, Jiwoong Seol, Se-Joon Kim, Jaehyoung Lee, Huen Lee

Gas Hydrates  — Properties

80Development of Ring Shear Apparatus with Permeability Measurement System for Hydrate-bearing Sediments

Hideki Minagawa, Hiroaki Kaneko, Sho Kimura, Takuma Ito, Hideo Narita

83Basic Study on the Permeability of Sand during Direct Shear Test

Masayo Kakumoto, Jun Yoneda, Jun Katagiri, Kuniyuki Miyazaki, Norio Tenma, Kazuo Aoki

87Geotechnical Properties of Soil Samples Recovered from Eastern Nankai Trough Offshore Japan

Shin’ya Nishio, Eiji Ogisako, Atsushi Denda, Hiroyuki Tanaka, Hiroyuki Hirakawa

92Geochemical Characteristics of the Soil above Muli Gas Hydrate Reservoir

Zhongjun Sun, Mingcai Xu, Zhibin Yang, Aihua Qin

99An Experimental Study of Natural Gas Hydrate in Permafrost by the Electromagnetic Method

Meixing He, Hui Fang, Qing Zhong, Yao Zhang, Yongzhen Yuan, Genggeng Qiu, Yixin Ye

104Using Alcohol Vapor as Catalyst for Synthesizing Methane Hydrate

Po-Chun Chen, Wuu-Liang Huang, San-Hsiung Chung, Li-Jen Chen

109Gas Replacement in Clathrate Hydrates during CO2 Injection - Kinetics and Micro-Structural Mechanism

Andrzej Falenty, M. Mangir Murshed, Andrey N. Salamatin, Werner F. Kuhs

116Quantitative Raman Scattering of Guest Molecules in Gas Hydrates and Its Relevance to Gas Exchange Processes Involving N2

Junfeng Qin, Werner F. Kuhs

121Validation of Seismic Methods to Detect Natural Gas Hydrates in Permafrost

Mingcai Xu, Zhongjun Sun, Jianxun Liu, Baowei Zhang, Xiaojiang Wang, Guangke Wang

126Triaxial Behaviour of Mathance Hydrate Bearing Sand

Masayuki Hyodo, Shintaro Kajiyama, Norimasa Yoshimoto, Yukio Nakata

Gas Hydrates  — Development

132Monitoring System for Seafloor Deformation during Methane Hydrate Production Test

Tatsuya Yokoyama, Mio Shimoyama, Shinji Matsuda, Koichi Tago, Junya Takeshima

136Research on Marine Gas Hydrate Drilling Sampler of China

Hong Ren, Laiju Han, Junliang Xu, Zhonghua Wu

141Development of Large Scale Production System for Methane Hydrates

Jiro Nagao, Yoshihiro Konno

145Experimental Investigation on Controlling the Depressurization-Induced Production Behavior from Hydrate-Bearing Sediments in 10-Meter-Scale

Taewoong Ahn, Jaehyoung Lee, Joo Yong Lee, Se Joon Kim

150Laboratory Test to Evaluate the Performance of Sand Control Screens during Hydrate Dissociation Process by Depressurization

Jaehyoung Lee, Taewoong Ahn, Joo Yong Lee, Se Joon Kim

154The Lab-Scale Evaluation of Geomechanical Safety during the Production from Marine Gas Hydrate Deposits

Joo Yong Lee, Jaehyung Lee, Se Joon Kim, Taewoong Ahn


157Recovery of Total Rare Earth Metal from Deep Sea Nodule Leach Liquor by Solvent Extraction Process

Chul Woo Nam, Pankaj Ku. Parhi, Kyung Ho Park, Smruti Pra. Barik, Jean Tae Park

162Leaching of Rare Earth Metals from Deepsea Nodule by Dilute Sulfuric Acid Solution

Kyung Ho Park, Pankaj Ku. Parhi, Chul Woo Nam, Smruti Pra. Barik, Jean Tae Park

167Study on Self-Catalysis Reduction Leaching of Ocean Co-Mn Polymetallic Ores in Ammonia Solution

Kaixi Jiang, Xunxiong Jiang, Linyong Feng, Wei Jiang, Shengdong Wang, Lei Zhao, Yanqing Fan

173Optimization of the Existing Methods for Recovery of Basic Metals from Polymetallic Nodules

M. Pelegrin Rodriguez, Ruben Aja, R. Causse Miyares

180Copper, Nickel and Cobalt Extraction from FeCuNiCoMn Alloy Obtained after Pyrometallurgical Processing of Deep Sea Nodules

Vladislava Przebinda Stefanova, Peter Kostadinov Iliev, Boris Stoilov Stefanov

185Study on the Ammonia-Nitrogen Wastewater Treatment by Ocean Manganese Nodules

Denggao Zhang, Yanqing Fan, Rengjian Wang, Xunxiong Jiang


Mining System

190In-Situ Soil Testing in the Central Indian Ocean Basin at 5462-m Water Depth

S. Muthukrishna Babu, N.R. Ramesh, P. Muthuvel, R. Ramesh, C.R. Deepak, M.A. Atmanand

198Preliminary Design Considerations for a Ship to Mine Polymetallic Nodules in the Clarion-Clipperton Zone

Tomasz Abramowski, Tomasz Cepowski

204Suspension Principle of Deep-Sea Miner and Drag Tests

Hao Zheng, Qiong Hu, Ning Yang, Yangrui Chen, Bing Yang

210A Study on Dynamic Behaviors of Pilot Mining Robot according to Extremely Cohesive Soft Soil Properties

Chang-Ho Lee, Hyung-Woo Kim, Sup Hong

Mining Pipe and Nodule Lift

215Conveying of Coarse-Grained Particles in Pipes

Pavel Vlasak, Zdenek Chara, Jiri Konfrst, Jerzy Sobota, Bohus Kysela

221Slip Velocities in Mixture Vertical Pipe Flow

Jerzy Sobota, Pavel Vlasak, Leszek Petryka, Marcin Zych

225Consideration of Seafloor Ore Separation by Slurry Flushing for Seafloor Massive Sulfide Mining

T. Yamazaki, Y. Yamamoto, R. Arai, N. Nakatani

230Application of the Cross-Correlation Method to Determine Solid and Liquid Velocities during Flow in a Vertical Pipeline

Leszek Petryka, Marcin Zych, Robert Hanus,  Jerzy Sobota, Pavel Vlasak

234Identification of Vertical Deep-Ocean Pipe End-Point Position

Peter Hubinský, Jozef Rodina, Jaroslav Hanzel, Boris Rudolf

239Structural Health Monitoring for Top-tensioned Riser with Response Data of Damaged Model

Cheon-Hong Min, Sup Hong, Hyung-Woo Kim, Jong-Su Choi, Tae-Kyeong Yeu

246Experimental and Computational Investigation of Turbulent Pulsatile Flow through a Flexible Hose

N.R. Ramesh, K. Thirumurugan, S. Rajesh, C.R. Deepak, M.A. Atmanand

Oceanfloor Miner and Nodule Collector

253Multi-objective Design Optimization for Manganese Nodule Pilot Miner Considering Collecting Performance and Manoeuver of Vehicle

Su-gil Cho, Sanghyun Park, Sungsik Choi, Tae Hee Lee, Minuk Lee, Jong-Su Choi, Hyung Woo Kim, Chang-Ho Lee, Sup Hong

261Performance Tests of a Manganese Nodule Crusher

Cheon-Hong Min, Sup Hong, Hyung-Woo Kim, Chang-Ho Lee, Min-Uk Lee, Jong-Su Choi, Tae-Kyeong Yeu, Ki-Young Sung

265Operating System of KIOST Pilot Mining Robot in Inshore Test

Tae-Kyeong Yeu, Suk-Min Yoon, Sup Hong, Jin-Ho Kim, Hyung-Woo Kim, Jong-Su Choi, Cheon-Hong Min

269Electric-Electronic System of Pilot Mining Robot, MineRo-II

Jin-Ho Kim, Tae-Kyeong Yeu, Suk-Min Yoon, Hyung-Woo Kim, Jong-Su Choi, Cheon-Hong Min, Sup Hong

273A New Path Tracking Control Algorithm of Deepsea Tracked Miner

Qingjue Han, Shaojun Liu

279Dynamic Analysis of a Tracked Vehicle Based on a Subsystem Synthesis Method

Hyung-Woo Kim, Chang-Ho Lee, Sup Hong, Jae-Won Oh, Cheon-Hong Min, Tae-Kyeong Yeu, Jongsu Choi

286Study on Geometric Path Tracking Algorithm for Tracked Vehicle Model

Suk-Min Yoon, Tae-Kyeong Yeu, Sup Hong, Hyung-Woo Kim, Jong-Su Choi, Cheon-Hong Min, Sang-Bong Kim