Copyright © 1997 by International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers,

Golden, Colorado, USA. All Rights Reserved.

 

 

VOLUME I , 1997 (ISBN 1-880653-29-X)

CONTENT

Foreword ..... iii
Acknowledgement ..... iv
ISOPE-97 Technical Program Committee ..... iv
Partial List of Reviewers ..... vi
Announcements and Publication Order Information ..... viii
List of Topics in Each Volume ..... xii

 

PLENARY PRESENTATIONS
Environmental Protection of the Deep Sea: A Challenge for Engineers, Scientists and Politicians
Hjalmar Thiel ..... 1
The Tokyo Bay Tunnel of the Trans-Tokyo Bay Highway
T. Funasaki, Y. Izumi, T. Masuda and M. Kanai ..... 6
Lessons to Learn from Full Scale Measurements of Snorre TLP Tethers
Arnljot Skogvang and Horst Vogel ..... 16
OCEAN AND TECHNOLOGY REVIEW
Norway's Remaining Petroleum Resources: Perspectives and Challenges
Finn Roar Aamodt ..... 25
Emergency Management for Coastal Earthquake Disaster from the Viewpoint of the Sea
Ichiro Tanaka ..... 29
SAKHALIN OIL AND GAS
Neftegorsk Earthquake, 28 May 1995, Sakhalin Island
V.V. Kharakhinov, S.G. Litvinov and S.P. Beketsky ..... 35
Aspects of the Environmental Safety in the Processes of the Development of Oil/Gas Fields Offshore Sakhalin
T.V. Gnezdova and A.N. Kravchenko ..... 38
The Role of Oil and Gas Projects of Sakhalin Shelf in Supplement of Far-Eastern Region of Russia with Fuel-Energy Resources
L.S. Brodski, I.Ph. Vasyanovich and E.K. Terpugov ..... 42
Oil and Gas Exploration on the North Sakhalin and Its Shelf
V.M. Zakalsky, V.S. Kovalchuk, A.V. Kuchin and Yu. S. Mavrinsky ..... 46
Petroleum Possibilities of the Far Eastern Seas
E.G. Koblov, Yu.S. Mavrinsky and V.V. Kharakhinov ..... 50
Production and Domestic Distribution of Sakhalin Offshore Natural Gas
S.M. Bogdanchikov and V.N. Astafiev ..... 62
Parameters of Ice Ridges of the Okhotsk Sea
G.A. Surkov ..... 68
RESOURCES AND ENERGY
Utilisation of CFD to Study an Oscillating Water Column
P. White, M. Webster, A. Thakker and M. O'Dowd ..... 70
Air Turbine with Cambered Blades for Wave Energy Conversion: Performances in Steady Flow Condition
Kenji Kaneko, Manabu Takao and Toshiaki Setoguchi ..... 77
Effect of Guide Vanes on the Performance of a Wells Turbine for Wave Energy Conversion
T. Setoguchi, M. Takao, K. Kaneko and M. Inoue ..... 83
Some Considerations to Ocean Wave Power Converter
Tomiji Watabe ..... 89
Gas Hydrates in the Messoyakha Gas Field of the West Siberian Basin - A Re-Examination of the Geologic Evidence
Timothy S. Collett and Gabriel D. Ginsburg ..... 96
Estimated Gas Hydrate Volumes: Example from the Niger Delta Front
Martin Hovland, Ben Clennell, Joseph W. Gallagher and Knut Lekvam ..... 104
A Study and Hypothesis of Hydrate Growth Using a Low Dosage Hydrate Inhibitor (During a Shut-In Period in a Multiphase Pipeline)
Are Lund, Olav Urdahl, Olav Lier, Lars Henrik Gjertsen, Thorvald Jakobsen and John Andreas Støvneng ..... 110
Sea Bottom Radioactivity Measurement Systems in Japan
Mutsuo Hattori, Yoshii Kobayashi and Masaharu Okano ..... 116
A New Broad Band Frequency Modulated Subbottom Profiler Developed for Hawaii
James Barry, Steven G. Schock and Marc Ericksen ..... 120
Longitudinal Vibration-Control of Pipe String for Mining Manganese Nodules in Deep Sea with an Elastic Support
Yoshikazu Kobayashi and Kazuo Aso ..... 128
To the Problem of Application of Ecologically Good Methods of Building and Titanium-Magnetite Sands Mining in the Shelf
Y.N. Niskovskiy, E.V. Niskovskaya and A.M. Vasianovitch ..... 136
The Project of Marine Dressing Complex for Mining the Deposits of the Far Eastern and North-Eastern Seas Shelf
Anatoliy V. Zhukov, Vladimir T. Lutsenko and Mikhail I. Zvonarev ..... 138
Mathematical Simulation of Run Operations with Cable-Container System for Deep Ocean Mining of Hard Minerals
Ivan F. Glumov, Vadim S. Tikhonov, Alexander I. Safronov, Yuri P. Semyonov and Valery E. Lyubinsky ..... 143
TLP, VLFS AND FPSO
Long-Term Response of Tension Leg Platforms
J.J.M. Baar, C.T. Howell, R.S. Mercier and G. Rodenbusch ..... 150
An Analysis Procedure for the Tendons of a Tension Leg Platform
Luiz Henrique Moraes Alves and Breno Pinheiro Jacob and Gilberto Bruno Ellwanger ..... 161
UOE-Formed Tendon Pipes for Deep Water Oil & Gas Exploration in the Gulf of Mexico
Tomoaki Ikeda, Kazushi Ohnishi, Akio Yamamoto, Makoto Nagase, Izumi Takeuchi and James D. Smith ..... 169
Response Prediction of a TLP in Cyclonic Storm Conditions
S.A. Higgins, J.B. Hinwood and K.P. Thiagarajan ..... 177
An Investigation of Extreme Wave Behaviour Around a Model TLP
A.D. Arnott, C.A. Greated, A. Incecik and A. McLeary ..... 185
Time Domain Simulation of a TLP's Response Due to Laboratory-Generated Asymmetric Irregular Waves
J. Zou, Y. Xu and C.H. Kim ..... 193
Dragged Surge Motion on Tension Leg Platform Tethers
Hsien Hua Lee, Pei-Wen Wang and Chung-Pan Lee ..... 201
Interaction of Waves and a Porous Tension Leg Platform with an Impermeable Top Layer
Chung-Pan Lee and Wen-Kuei Ker ..... 207
First- and Second-Order Wave Forces on a Large Spar Platform
Hyungsuk Yoo, David C. Weggel, Edward J. Powers and Jose M. Roesset ..... 215
Numerical Study of the Hydrodynamic Forces on Huge Floating Structures in Waves and Ocean Currents
Yoshiyuki Inoue, Xuangang Zhang and Shigeru Tabeta ..... 221
A B-Spline Galerkin Scheme for Computing Wave Forces on a Floating Very Large Elastic Plate
Masashi Kashiwagi ..... 229
Three-Dimensional Slamming of a Distorted Plate
Ken Takagi ..... 237
Dynamic Wave Interaction Analysis of Floating Elastic Plates
Tadaaki Tanabe, M. Nishimura and Tetsuo Kawamura ..... 245
Shallow Water Effect on Hydrodynamic Coefficients of Very Large Floating Structures
Shin-ichi Aoki ..... 253
Effects of Seaquake on Offshore Floating Structure
Kouji Mochizuki, Hajime Kihara, Ken Takagi and Shigeru Naito ..... 261
Dynamic Response of a Very Large Floating Structure with Active Pneumatic Control
T. Hirayama and N. Ma ..... 269
Wave-Induced Motions of a Very Large Floating Structure in Quartering Seas
Mikio Takaki and Xiechong Gu ..... 277
Hybrid Dynamic Analysis of Large Tension Leg Floating Structures Using Plate Elements
Takuji Hamamoto, Akinori Suzuki and Ken-ichi Fujita ..... 285
The Wave Forcing of a Three Dimensional Floating Elastic Body
Michael H. Meylan ..... 293
Experimental Study for the Behavior of a Huge Floating Structure
H.S. Shin and D.J. Yum ..... 299
Study on the Inverse Analysis Method for Cathodic Protection Problems
M. Iwata, Q. Wu, Y. Huang and H. Yajima ..... 307
Structural Requirements for the Conversion of an Oil Tanker to a FPSO as a Permanent System
Marina Barbosa Fachetti, Deborah Martinez de Mattos and Carlos Alberto Bardanachvili ..... 312
Process Decks for FPSOs - Effects of Ship Motions and Deformation on Structural Analysis
Marcos José de Souza, Breno Pinheiro Jacob and Gilberto Bruno Ellwanger ..... 318
An Efficient System for Floating Production, Storage and Loading in Ice-Covered Sea
A. Bech, C.M. Bech, K. Syvertsen and T. Vinje ..... 322
Dynamic Analysis of a FPSO System
A.C. Fernandes and S. Sphaier ..... 330
Effects of Mooring Line Dynamics on Position Keeping of a Floating Production System
Sup Hong and Sa Y. Hong ..... 336
Disconnectable Concrete FPSO for Arctic Conditions
Loic des Déserts, Nicolas Parsloe and François Thiébaud ..... 342
Quasi-Linear Model of a Tanker in a Turret Configuration
C.A. Martins, M.R. Martins, A.J.P. Leite and J.A.P. Aranha ..... 349
Offshore Single Point Mooring Systems for Import of Hazardous Liquid Cargoes Offshore Southern California
Aaron M. Salancy and Robert G. Bea ..... 355
Dynamics of Moored Tankers - SPM and Turret
K. Nishimoto, H.L. Brinati and C.H. Fucatu ..... 370
OFFSHORE SYSTEMS AND OPERATIONS
Barge Mounting Technique for Installation of Large Offshore Bridge Structure
Y.T. Kim and Chul H. Jo ..... 379
Harald Valve Station - a Danish Subsea Installation in the North Sea
Nils Gjersøe Fog and Poul Henrik Jønsson ..... 387
Study of Oilfield Produced-Water Pre-Separation Hydrocyclone
Jie He, Fuzhou Dong, Zengrui Li and Minghu Jiang ..... 394
Fuzzy Syllogistic Inspection Planning Paradigm for Offshore Structures
Hari B. Kanegaonkar ..... 397
Random Fatigue Analysis of a Jacket Type Offshore Structure: Time and Frequency-Domain Approaches
Marcos Queija de Siqueira, Ana Lucia Fernandes Lima Torres, Carlos Alberto Bardanachvili, Luis Volnei Sudati Sagrilo, Marina Barbosa Fachetti and Edison C.P. de Lima ..... 404
Study of the Multi-Function Removable Concrete Platform
Yu-pu Song and Yi Wei ..... 412
Structural Control of Offshore Platforms
J. Suhardjo and A. Kareem ..... 416
Lifting Eye Design
Edwin P. Russo, John N. Crisp, William W. St. Cyr and Engin A. Egeseli ..... 425
ENVIRONMENT
The Environmental Consequences of Large-Scale Research in the Deep Ocean
Hjalmar Thiel and Anthony L. Rice ..... 434
Results of the Large Scale Deep-Sea Environmental Impact Study DISCOL During Eight Years of Investigation
Gerd Schriever, Ahmed Ahnert, Hartmut Bluhm, Christian Borowski and H. Thiel ..... 438
Experiments on the Influence of Technical Activities in the Deep-Sea on Heavy Metal Cycles
Andrea Koschinsky, Hans Gerber and Axel Szemeitat ..... 445
Data Support for Modelling of Deep-Sea Mining Impacts
J.A. Jankowski and W. Zielke ..... 451
Large Scale Transport of Particle Reactive Tracers - Numerical Simulations
J. Segschneider and J. Sündermann ..... 461
Use of Marine Mineral Tailings for Aggregate and Agricultural Applications
John C. Wiltshire ..... 468
The Abundance and Vertical Distribution of Abyssal Benthic Fauna in the Japan Deep-Sea Impact Experiment
Tomomi (Sato) Kaneko, Yoriko Maejima and Hirohiko Teishima ..... 475
The Benthic Impact Experiment: A Study of the Ecological Impacts of Deep Seabed Mining on Abyssal Benthic Communities
Dwight D. Trueblood and Erdogan Ozturgut ..... 481
Benthic Environmental Baseline Investigations in the Manganese Nodule Area of the Central Indian Basin
Rahul Sharma, B. Nagender Nath, S.M. Gupta and Z.A. Ansari ..... 488
Chinese Environmental Investigation Related to Potential Impact of Deep-Sea Mining
Huai-Yang Zhou ..... 496
Direct Ocean Storage of CO2: Options and Obstacles
Peter M. Haugan ..... 499
Simulation of Deep Ocean Relocation of Dredged Material
Philip J. Valent, David K. Young and Andrew W. Palowitch ..... 505
Numerical Modeling of the Settling Processes of Dredged Material Disposed in Open Waters
Qin Jiang, Hiroshi Kunisu and Akira Watanabe ..... 510
Modeling of Offshore Discharge of Drilling Mud
Bao-Shi Shiau ..... 516
Establishing a Simulation Strategy for the Dispersion of Drill-Cuttings
L. Carles and I. Bryden ..... 521
Infiltration Control Cover Technology Demonstration at Marine Corps Base Hawaii - Preliminary Results of Water Balance Monitoring
Leslie Karr, T.E. Hakonson and Bryan Harre ..... 526
Curtains on Board for Preventing Spilt Oil Diffusion
Masayoshi Kubo, Kenji Asaki, Kazusei Yamamoto and Tsuyoshi Oki ..... 532
In Situ Anaerobic Bioremediation of Fuel Contaminated Ground Water at Seal Beach, CA
Martin Reinhard, Gary D. Hopkins, Eva Orwin and Carmen A. Lebron ..... 539
Laser Heterodyne Imaging for Shallow Water Surveillance
M.L. Riaziat, R.X. Cao, L.C. Wong and R. Bourke ..... 544
An Impressive Reduction in False Diffusion for Multidimensional Phenomena
Takaaki Shigematsu, Kazuki Oda and Masahide Takeda ..... 550
Decomposition of PCB in Soils/Sediments Using the Base-Catalyzed Decomposition Process (BCDP)
D.B. Chan ..... 554
Red Hill Fuel Tank Leak Detection
William Major, Leslie Karr, George Warren and John Norbutas ..... 561
Surface Flow and Gas Dispersion from a Subsea Release of Natural Gas
T. Engebretsen, T. Northug, K. Sjøen and T.K. Fanneløp ..... 566
Specialized Information System on Environment of Yamal Peninsula and Baydaratskaya Bay
G.E. Odisharia, A.S. Tsvetsinsky, N.N. Mikhailov and G.I. Dubikov ..... 574
Environmental Impact Assessment for the Baydaratskaya Bay Crossing of the Yamal - West Europe Gas Pipeline System
Alexander V. Beloshapkov, Vladimir B. Leschinsky, Alexander S. Tsvetsinsky and Konstantin A. Kashunin ..... 582
Numerical Simulation of Flow and Density Field of Kagoshima Bay in the Summer
Yusaku Kyozuka, Changhong Hu and Nobuyuki Iwakiri ..... 587
On Validation of Multi-Level Method for Simulation of Flow Around a Mega-Float: Comparison of Numerical Calculation with Model Experiment
Hideyuki Omori, Yusaku Kyozuka, Changhong Hu, Hiroyuki Nakagawa and Masanori Kobayashi ..... 595
Response to Nutrient Addition in Tropical Nearshore Waters, Bays and Estuaries
Hans J. Krock ..... 603
Compliance Methodology for Lognormal Populations
Ross S. Tanimoto and Hans J. Krock ..... 608
GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING
Static and Dynamic Properties of Marine Soils
Shamsher Prakash and Vijay K. Puri ..... 610
Consolidation Analysis of Sensitive Clay by Elasto-Viscoplastic Two-Fractions Mixture Model
Nobuharu Abe ..... 617
Bounding Surface Plasticity Theory Applied to Cyclic Loading on Cohesionless Soil
Robert Yun-Pin Chin ..... 622
The Analysis of Soft Clay Ground Behavior Using Spline Method
Song Lee, Koou-Ho Hwang and Soo-Sam Kim ..... 628
Major Effect of Grain Size Distribution to Coefficient of Permeability of Marine Clay
Mitsuharu Fukuda, Seiji Suwa and Takao Uno ..... 634
A Numerical Analysis on the Deformation of Decomposed Granite Soil Foundation Using Elasto-Plastic Model
Bang-woong Shin, Kwang-dong Lee, Se-wook Oh and Tae-wook Cheong ..... 639
Comparison of Bathymmetry and Consolidation Settlement of Dredge Mound in Long Island Sound
H.G. Brandes and A.J. Silva ..... 647
A Case Study on the High Pressure Injection Method for the Quaywall Construction
B.S. Chun, Y.S. Chae, H.K. Yoo, D.K. Chung, Y.S. Kim, Y.W. Nam and S.J. Oh ..... 654
Liquefaction Potential in Coastal Areas of Proposed Kaohsiung Deep-Sea Harbor, Taiwan
Shen-Chi Chen, Gwan-Shong Wang and Yun-Pin Chin ..... 659
Three Dimensional Liquefaction Analysis of Reclaimed Island
F. Oka, A. Yashima, M. Sugito and Y. Taguchi ..... 665
Evaluation of Liquefaction Resistance of Sand by Its Maximum Shear Modulus
Yao-Chung Chen ..... 671
Liquefaction Behavior of Sandy Soil Sandwiched by Clay Layers
Tej B.S. Pradhan ..... 676
Behavior of Gravity Type Quay Wall During Earthquake Observed in Model Shaking Table Test
K. Miura, E. Kohama, S. Kurita, N. Ohtsuka and N. Yoshida ..... 683
Seabed Response to Wave Loading
Q.S. Yang and H.B. Poorooshasb ..... 689
Liquefaction Strengths of Crushable Soils
Masayuki Hyodo, Adrian F.L. Hyde and Noritaka Aramaki ..... 696
Developments in Prefabricated Vertical Drain Enhanced Soil Flushing
J.D. Quaranta, M.A. Gabr, E.E. Cook and D. Szabo ..... 703
Evaluation of Ground Densification by Dynamic Compaction Using SASW Method
Dong-Soo Kim, Hyung-Choon Park, Gi-Chul Kweon and Sung-In Kim ..... 707
Prefabricated Vertical Drains in Geotechnical Engineering: State of the Art Review
M.A. Gabr, J.D. Quaranta, E.E. Cook and D.T. Mooney ..... 714
Improvement of Marine Clay by Quick Lime Pile
B.S. Chun, S.S. Kim, H.K. Yoo, B.K. Kang and K.H. Koh ..... 720
Case Histories on Monitoring Vibro-Driven Piles in Reclaimed Grounds
H. Tsuboi, T. Matsui and Y. Ando ..... 727
Shape Effect of Mandrels on Smear and Well Resistance of Plastic Drain Boards
Soo-Sam Kim, Yeon-Soo Jang, Min-Soo Kang and Kyung-Hwan Koh ..... 734
Pullout Behavior of Model Suction Anchors in Soft Marine Clays
S. Narasimha Rao, R. Ravi and C. Ganapathy ..... 740
An Important Consideration for Seismic-Resistant Design of Offshore Piles
P.M. Rao and M.W. O'Neill ..... 745
Horizontal Impact Loads on Large Bored Single Piles in Sand
Thomas Grundhoff ..... 753
Simulation of Suction Pile Installation in Sand in a Geocentrifuge
H.G.B. Allersma, F.J.A. Plenevaux and J.-F.P.C.M.E. Wintgens ..... 761
Prediction of Lateral Capacity of Piles in Clays from Standard Penetration Tests
Yenumula V.S.N. Prasad ..... 767
Response of Soil Plug to Horizontal and Vertical Excitation
Yongkyu Choi and Michael W. O'Neill ..... 772
Dependence of Pile Reliability on Load Uncertainty
G. Singh and W.T. Lai ..... 778
Vertical Capacity of Caisson Foundations in Calcareous Sediments
P.G. Watson and M.F. Randolph ..... 784
Finite Element Modelling of Skirted Strip Footings Subject to Combined Loadings
M.F. Bransby and M.F. Randolph ..... 791
Analysis of Anchor Mooring Lines in Sands
S. Bang and R.J. Taylor ..... 797
Piles and Shallow Foundations Under Cyclic Loadings
Jan Laue, Thomas Grundhoff and Hans L. Jessberger ..... 803
Cyclic Load-Induced Settlement of Shallow Foundations on Geogrid-Reinforced Layered Soil
Braja M. Das and K.H. Khing ..... 811
Dynamic Response of Square Foundation Vibration Using 3D Boundary Element Method
Sheng-Huoo Ni and Pay-Shiun Tsai ..... 815
The Study on the Electro Osmotic Consolidation of Marine Clayey Soil
Soo-Sam Kim, Kwang-Yeol Lee, Sang-Jae Han and Kyung-Hwan Koh ..... 821
Consolidation Analysis of Natural Clay by Flow Surface History Variable Model
Nobuharu Abe ..... 827
Bed Shear Stress Distribution Over a Composite Beach Profile
E. Özkan Çevik and Y. Yüksel ..... 832
Model Prediction of Stress-Strain Behavior on Cohesionless Soil
Robert Yun-Pin Chin ..... 835
Effect of Pre-Shearing with Drainage on Undrained Cyclic Shear Behaviour of Dense Sand
Ken-ichi Sato, Kazuya Yasuhara and Nobuo Yoshida ..... 842
Effects of Compression Rate on Unconfined Compressive Strength of Cohesive Soils: Evaluation Based on the Effective Stress
Masayoshi Shimizu ..... 850
Estimation of In-situ Consolidation Parameters and Prediction of Settlement Behavior of Embankment
Takaharu Shogaki, Yoshikazu Maruyama and Keiji Kogure ..... 855
Dynamic Response of Caisson with Suction and Its Foundation Due to Wave
Tomiya Takatani, Yoshi-hiko Maeno, Shigeo Takahashi and Ken-ichiro Shimosako ..... 861
Discontinuous Deformation Analysis on Seafloor Sliding Simulation
L.K. Chien and Y.N. Oh ..... 868
Improved Data Interpretation Method for SASW Tests at Complex Geotechnical Sites
Sung-Ho Joh, Brent L. Rosenblad and Kenneth H. Stokoe, II ..... 875
Consolidation Characteristics of Pleistocene Clays Under Wide Range of Applied Pressures
Tamotsu Matsui, Kazuhiro Oda, Yasuyuki Nabeshima and Kwang Hoon Yang ..... 882
Seepage Through an Embankment Computed by Grid Research Using FEM
Mahmudul Alam Chowdhury, Masato Kunitake and Fumiyoshi Kondo ..... 887
Shear Behavior of Remolded Clay in Strain Path Controlled Mini-Triaxial Test
Tamotsu Matsui, Kazuhiro Oda and Yasuyuki Nabeshima ..... 894
Drained and Undrained Behavior of Sand Under Cyclic Loading
T. Nakai, T. Hoshikawa and M. Hinokio ..... 901
Effect of Sample Disturbance on Consolidation Yield Stress of Ariake Clays
Zhenshun Hong and Katsutada Onitsuka ..... 907
A Small Diameter Sampler and the Quality of Its Samples
Takaharu Shogaki and Takashi Sudoh ..... 915
Stability of Heaps of Iron Ore Concentrate
Jan Laue ..... 921
A Feasibility Study of the Utilization of De-sulphurization Slag as Engineering Filling Materials
Der-Her Lee, Juu-En Chang and Yuin-Yao Jhi ..... 928
Effect of Internal Structure on Mechanical Behavior of Osaka Pleistocene Marine Clay
A. Yashima, F. Oka and H. Shigematsu ..... 933
A Novel Procedure for Testing Model Drag Anchors
M.P. O'Neill, M.F. Randolph and S.R. Neubecker ..... 939
Geotechnical Properties of Crude Oil-Contaminated Sand
E.C. Shin, J.B. Lee and B.M. Das ..... 946
Stabilization of Petroleum Contaminated Drilling Wastes by Additives
M. Tuncan, A. Tuncan and H. Koyuncu ..... 950
GIS Database of Irrigation Ponds Damaged by the 1995 Hyokoken-Nambu Earthquake
Kazunori Uchida ..... 954
ADDITIONAL PAPERS
On the Role of Geologic Factors in Determining Peculiarities of Water Mass Structure in the Clarion-Clipperton Ore Field
G. Tkatchenko, R. Kotlinski, V. Stoyanova, Dehua Lian, Guozhen Zhang and Yongyang Huang ..... 959
Performance of a Wells Type Turbine Coupled to an Induction Generator for Wave Energy Applications
Ardhendu G. Pathak, V. Jayashankar and M. Ravindran ..... 962
A Study of Sedimentation Processes in Seamangeum Coastal Area
Moon Seup Shin, Tetsuo Yanagi and Sung Kun Hong ..... 966
Floating Wave-Energy Pump for Wide Wave-Range
H. Ueki, K. Kawaguty and S. Akamine ..... 973