Copyright © 1998 by International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers,

Golden, Colorado, USA. All Rights Reserved.



VOLUME II , 1998 (ISBN 1-880653-36-2)


New International Standards for Offshore Pipelines ..... 1
Hermann Moshagen, Erling Gjertveit, Sverre Lund and Richard Verley
Design Through Analysis Applying Limit-State Concepts and Reliability Methods ..... 9
Yong Bai and Per Damsleth
Experience from Operation, Inspection and Condition Monitoring of Offshore Pipeline Systems on the Norwegian Continental Shelf ..... 21
Åse Katrine Thomsen and Roger Leif Leonhardsen
Gas Pipeline System Construction Project at Black Sea Depths of up to 2140 m ..... 30
M.A. Kamyshev, N.G. Figarov and A.M. Kamyshev
Real-Time Monitoring to Detect Third-Party Damage ..... 34
B.N. Leis, R.B. Francini, F.B. Stulen, R. W. Hyatt and R. Norman
Direct Electrical Heating of Pipelines as a Method of Preventing Hydrate and Wax Plugs ..... 39
Jens Kristian Lervik, Martin Ahlbeck, Henry Raphael, Terje Lauvdal and Petter Holen
Finite Element Analysis of Pipeline Bundles on Uneven Seabed ..... 46
Olav Fyrileiv and Asle Venås
An Application of Bottom Pull Method to Bundled Submarine Pipelines ..... 53
P.C. Andrew Ngiam, C.H. Jo, Surasakdi Uthaichalandond and K.K. Yong
Pressure-Displacement Behavior of Transmission Pipelines Under Outside Forces -- Towards a Serviceability Criterion for Mechanical Damage ..... 60
B.N. Leis, R.B. Francini, R. Mohan, D.L. Rudland and R.J. Olson
Velocity Field Around a Pipeline in Breaking Waves ..... 68
C. Chevalier, E. Lambert and M. Bélorgey
Numerical Simulation of Local Scour Under Pipelines ..... 76
Fangjun Li and Liang Cheng
Modified Thin Wall Pipe Formula for Deep Water Application ..... 82
Jaeyoung Lee
Subsea Pipeline Behavior Under Seismic Impact ..... 86
N.Y. Kershenbaum, H.S. Choi and S.A. Mebarkia
Hydrodynamic Forces on Partly Buried Pipelines in Waves/Current ..... 94
S. Çokgör and I. Avci
Assessment of Free Spanning Pipelines Using the DNV Guideline ..... 100
Olav Fyrileiv and Kim Mørk
Link-Beam Model for Dynamic Buckle Propagation in Pipelines ..... 107
André Campos Nogueira
Effect of Axial Force on Allowable Free Spans of Submarine Pipelines ..... 115
S. Kapuria, V.Y. Salpekar and S. Sengupta
Plastic Failure of Pipelines ..... 119
Michelle S. Hoo Fatt
Structural Modelling of Multi-Span Pipe Configurations Subjected to Vortex Induced Vibrations ..... 127
N.Ø. Kristiansen, K. Tørnes, P.R. Nystrøm and P. Damsleth
Pipeline Structural Response to Fishing Gear Pull-Over Loads by 3D Transient FEM Analysis ..... 134
K. Tørnes, P.R. Nystrøm, N.Ø. Kristiansen, Y. Bai and P. Damsleth
Plastic Deformation and Local Buckling of Pipelines Loaded by Bending and Torsion ..... 143
A.M. Gresnigt and H.M.G.M. Steenbergen
Sandwaves: Where and Why ..... 153
Romke Bijker, Jort Wilkens and Suzanne Hulscher
The Effect of Tension-Fractured and Compression-Crushed Zones on Pipe Uplift Resistance in Frozen Soil ..... 159
A. Foriero and B. Ladanyi
Behavior of Buried Cables in Seafloor Soil Under Lateral Loading ..... 168
S. Bang and H. Han
Wave-Induced Seabed Instability Around a Buried Pipe in a Poro-Elastic Seabed ..... 175
Dong-Sheng Jeng and Liang Cheng
Analytical Collapse Capacity of Corroded Pipes ..... 182
Yong Bai and Søren Hauch
Application of Thrusts to Elastic Joints on Long Vertical Pipe in 3-D Nonlinear Motions -- Part II: Numerical Examples by MSE and FEM Results ..... 189
B. Cheng and Jin S. Chung
A Method to Predict Limiting Wave Height of a Deep Sea Riser in Disconnected Mode ..... 199
Hironori Yasukawa, Masahiko Ozaki and Akio Tanabe
The Soil Rigidity Effect in the Touchdown Boundary-Layer of a Catenary Riser: Static Problem ..... 207
C.P. Pesce, J.A.P. Aranha and C.A. Martins
The Optimum Condition of Vibration Absorber Used in Water ..... 214
Kazuo Aso and Yoshikazu Kobayashi
Study of a Free Hanging Catenary Flexible Riser Connected to a Turret Moored FPSO ..... 220
F.E. Roveri, E.J.B. Ribeiro and M.M. Mourelle
Suction Piles Versus Drag Anchors for Deep Water Moorings ..... 225
J-L. Colliat and L. Foulhoux
Hybrid Cable/Elastica Model for Low-Tension Cable Deployment Problems ..... 233
Yang Sun and John W. Leonard
Recommendations Regarding Design of Spiral Strands Against Axial Fatigue Failure ..... 239
M. Raoof
Mechanical Properties of Polyester Mooring Cables ..... 248
Antonio C. Fernandes, Cesar J.M. Del Vecchio and Gustavo A.V. Castro
H¥ Control of Thruster for AUV ..... 255
Masahiko Nakamura, Ralf Bachmayer, Louis L. Whitcomb and Mark Grosenbaugh
The Interaction Dynamics of a Semi-Submersible Towing a Large Towfish ..... 263
Mae L. Seto and George D. Watt
Field Experiments on Motion Control Systems of the Towed Vehicle "Flying Fish" ..... 271
Satoru Yamaguchi, Takashi Yokobiki and Wataru Koterayama
Physical, Chemical, and Geological Changes of Marine Environment Caused by the Benthic Impact Experiment at the IOM BIE Site ..... 277
Ryszard Kotlinski and Valcana Stoyanova
Recovery and Recolonisation Processes in the Area Disturbed by a Polymetallic Nodule Collector Simulator ..... 282
G.G. Tkatchenko and T. Radziejewska
Analysis of Data and Information Using Specialized Information System on Environment of Yamal Peninsula and Baydaratskaya Bay ..... 287
Alexander S. Tsvetsinsky, Nickolay N. Mikhailov, Alexander A. Vorontsov and Larisa V. Shershneva
Investigation into Environmental Conditions of the Ob and Taz Bay Shelf Gas Fields ..... 291
Vladimir N. Kryjov, Alexander S. Tsvetsinsky, Sergey A. Melnikov, Grigory I. Dubikov and Alexander I. Danilov
Problems of Engineering Protection of Bovanenkov Gas Condensate Fields Facilities and Territory (Central Yamal) ..... 296
Alexander V. Baranov and Gretta S. Akopova
Predicting the Behaviour of Drilled Cuttings Released into Sea Water ..... 301
I.G. Bryden and L.J. Carles
Characterisation of Offshore Drill-Cuttings for Simulation Purposes ..... 307
L.J. Carles and I.G. Bryden
Hot Air Vapor Extraction for Remediation of Petroleum Contaminated Sites ..... 313
S. Fann, D. Pal, E. Lory, L. Karr, A.P. Mathews and P.A. Price
Droplet Entrainment Boom Failure and Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability ..... 327
C.-F. An, R.M. Barron, H.M. Brown and R.H. Goodman
Numerical Study on the Far Field Diffusion of Ocean Dumping for Liquid Waste ..... 327
Bao-Shi Shiau and Jia-Jung Juang
Pressure Drop Ratio -- An Important Performance Parameter in Liquid-Liquid Hydrocyclone Separation ..... 335
Minghu Jiang, Lixin Zhao, Jie He and Fupeng Zhou
Ice Conditions as a Main Criteria When Choosing an Alternative of Oil and Gas Unloading from Offshore Fields of Sakhalin Island ..... 338
Vladimir N. Astafiev and Anatoly M. Polomoshnov
Probabilistic Model for Drifting Ice Ridges of the Sakhalin Offshore ..... 344
Gennadi A. Surkov
Duration of Ice Drift in Terms of Separate Gradations on the North-Eastern Sakhalin Offshore ..... 349
E.N. Kalinin
The Determination of Extreme Ice Loads on Offshore Structures ..... 354
Alexander T. Bekker, Olga A. Komarova and Aleksey V. Venkov
Thickness Distribution of Consolidated Hummock Layer Offshore Northern Sakhalin Island ..... 360
Sergei Beketsky
Medium-Scale Field Indentation Test (MSFIT): Results of 1997 Winter Tests ..... 364
Hiroshi Saeki, Ken-ichi Hirayama, Takahiro Takeuchi, Satoshi Akagawa, Muneo Kawamura, Naoki Nakazawa, Takashi Terashima, Hisao Matsushita, Masafumi Sakai and Hideki Honda
Trial Calculation of Design Ice Loads on an Arctic Structure for Offshore Sakhalin ..... 370
Kazuyuki Kato
Measurements of Ice Sheet Strain Area During Ice/Vertical Sided Structure Interactions Using Strain Gages in Field Indentation Tests ..... 376
Masafumi Sakai, Masakazu Aoshima and Hiroshi Saeki
Experimental Studies on Ice Flaking Characteristics of Compliant Indentors ..... 381
Kazuhiko Kamesaki, Hiroyuki Tsukuda and Yutaka Yamauchi
A Study on the Shearing Strength and Adhesive Strength of Sea Ice ..... 389
Hisao Matsushita, Toru Takawaki, Takahiro Takeuchi, Masafumi Sakai, Takashi Terashima, Hideki Honda, Akifumi Nishihata and Hiroshi Saeki
Distinct Element Simulation of Ice-Structure Interactions ..... 395
Kazuyuki Katsuragi, Tetsuro Kawasaki, Hideyuki Seto and Yasumichi Hayashi
Significance of Ice Sheet Leading Edge Roughness in Relation to Ice Load ..... 402
Takahiro Takeuchi, Muneo Kawamura, Hideki Honda, Kohji Masaki, Hisaaki Sasaki, Kyo-ichi Narita,Takayuki Saitoh, Hideyuki Nishimaki and Hiroshi Saeki
A Comparison of the Ductile Compressive Strength of Columnar Saline Ice Under Proportional and Conventional Triaxial Loading ..... 408
Jeffrey S. Melton and Erland M. Schulson
Strength and Creep of Ice in Terms of Mohr-Coulomb Fracture Theory ..... 416
Anatoly M. Fish and Yuri K. Zaretsky
Impact Ice Load on Pile Structures and Deformation of Ice Floes ..... 425
H. Saeki, T. Hayakawa, M. Hanada, K. Kawai and M. Sakai
The Pressure Area Relation in the Definition of Ice Forces ..... 431
R. Frederking
Observations from the Confederation Bridge Ice Monitoring Program ..... 438
T.G. Brown, K.R. Croasdale, J.R. Bruce and A. Azarnejad
Effects of Cross-Sectional Shape on Vertical Ice Load Acting on Pile Structure ..... 443
Takashi Terashima, Shinji Kioka, Akifumi Nishihata, Kyoichi Narita, Norihiro Usami and Hiroshi Saeki
Experimental Study on Vertical Ice Loads Acting on Pile Structures with a Circular Cross-Section ..... 448
Takashi Terashima, Akifumi Nishihata, Hideki Honda, Kyoichi Narita, Kunihiro Kawai and Hiroshi Saeki
Comparison of Results of Impact Tests on Laboratory and Natural Freshwater Ice with Hydrodynamic Model Predictions ..... 452
V. Likhomanov, I. Stepanov, R. Frederking and G.W. Timco
Design Load Calculations for Iceberg Impacts ..... 460
Mark Fuglem, Karen Muggeridge and Ian Jordaan
Continuum Damage Modelling for the Estimation of Ice Load Under Indentation ..... 468
K. Choi and O.J. Hwang
Simulation of Ice Forces on Sloping Structures ..... 476
B. Sand and G. Horrigmoe
Evaluation of Sea Ice Motion in the Western Ross Sea Using AVHRR Imagery ..... 483
G. Leonard, M. Lythe and H.H. Shen
Development of a Digital Acoustic Profiler for Ice Rubble ..... 488
Richard McKenna, Wayne Pearson, Fabian Hartery, Rafaat Khan, Greg Crocker and Brian Hill
Interactive Model of Ice-Structure Interaction ..... 493
Alexander T. Bekker, Tatyana E. Uvarova and Alexander N. Chetyrbotsky
Combining Regional and Local Models of Ice Regime for Sakhalin Offshore Construction ..... 499
I.L. Appel and A.T. Bekker
Monitoring System of the Ice Conditions in the Kara Sea Shelf Gas and Oil Fields ..... 504
Vladimir N. Kryjov, Alexander S. Tsvetsinsky, Sergey A. Melnikov and Alexander I. Danilov
Characteristics of Freezing in Ports in Hokkaido, Japan ..... 508
Tetsuya Hayakawa, Yasushi Yamamoto, Yuzo Mizuno and Masanori Okabe
1997 Pack Ice Properties in Northumberland Strait ..... 513
I.K. Peterson, S.J. Prinsenberg and A. Maillet
Physical Properties of Columnar Ice Grown in a Centrifuge ..... 519
Paul D. Barrette, Ryan Phillips, Jack I. Clark, Greg Crocker and Stephen J. Jones
Icing Event Occurrence in Quebec: Statistical Analysis of Field Data ..... 526
Masoud Farzaneh and Konstantin Savadjiev
Statistical Analysis of Two Probabilistic Models of Ice Accretion on Overhead Line Conductors ..... 530
Konstantin Savadjiev and Masoud Farzaneh
Characteristics of Icing Events in Quebec ..... 537
K.N.G. ElFashny, L.E. Chouinard, V.T.V. Nguyen and J.N. Laflamme
Effects of Voltage Type and Polarity on Flashover Performances at Low Atmospheric Pressure on an Ice Surface ..... 543
Y. Li, M. Farzaneh and J. Zhang
Propagation of DC Arc on Ice Surfaces ..... 547
J. Zhang and M. Farzaneh
Application of New Measurement and Simulation Methods to Marine Icing on Offshore Structures ..... 551
K.K. Chung, T.W. Forest, E.P. Lozowski, R. Gagnon, B. Faulkner and M. Chekhar
Full Scale Measurements of Ship Ice Loads and Performance on Board R/V Akademik Fedorov on Her Voyages in Antarctica and Arctica ..... 559
Seppo Kivimaa, Sauli Liukkonen and Jukka Vuorio
Ice Passport for Icebreaker "Pierre Radisson" and Passport's Concept Further Development ..... 566
V. Likhomanov, O. Timofeev, I. Stepanov, V. Kashtelyan and L. Tsoy
Operational Experience and Expertise of Hulls Reliability of "Samotlor" Type Polar Tankers ..... 572
Victor A. Kulesh, Igor A. Vorontsov, Natalya Y. Popova and Vitaliy V. Mostovoy
Physical Testing and Finite Element Analysis of Icebreaking Ship Structures in the Post Yield Region ..... 577
James Bond and Stephen Kennedy
Canadian Ice Regime System Database ..... 586
G.W. Timco and I. Morin
Scour Around Marine Naked Pipeline Under Wave Action ..... 592
Chongren Qin