Copyright © 1995 by International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers,

Golden, Colorado, USA. All Rights Reserved.



VOLUME II , 1995 (ISBN 1-880653-18-4)


Foreword ..... iii
Acknowledgement ..... iv
Technical Program Committee ..... iv
Partial List of Reviewers ..... v
Announcements and Publication Order Information ..... viii
List of Topics in Each Volume ..... xii
Engineering Repercussions of Ocean Wave Propagation in Ice-Infested Seas
Vernon A. Squire ..... 1
Seabed Irregularity in Subsea Pipeline Spanning
Naum Y. Kershenbaum and Gary E. Harrison ..... 8
Pipeline Cover Stability
W.H.G. Klomp and P. Lomonaco Tonda ..... 15
Abrasive Water Suspension Jet - A Multifunctional Working Tool for Underwater Applications
C. Brandt, H. Louis, G. Meier and G. Tebbing ..... 23
Design of In-line MFL Inspection Tools Using 2-D and 3-D Finite Element Calculation
Poul Laursen, Jukka Mäki and David L. Atherton ..... 30
The Geotechnical Design of the Baydaratskaya Bay Pipeline Crossing
James M. Oswell, Alan J. Hanna, Jan Willem Leussink and J.F. (Derick) Nixon ..... 34
Instrumentation and Monitoring of Large-Diameter Natural Gas Pipelines Operating at Sub-Zero Temperatures in the United Kingdom
D.P. Greene, R.J. Kettle and E. Middleton ..... 41
Theory and Practice of Installing Pipelines by the Pre-Snaking Method
H.R. (Ed) Vermeulen ..... 47
Numerical Analysis of Pipeline Dynamics in Seabed Laying
V. Tikhonov, A. Safronov, M. Kamyshev and N. Figarov ..... 53
High Temperature Snaking Behaviour of Pipelines
Svein Sævik and Erik Levold ..... 63
Intermittent Three-Phase Flow of Oil, Water and Gas in Horizontal Pipes
M. Nädler and D. Mewes ..... 72
Expansion Analysis of Offshore Pipelines Close to Restraints
Han S. Choi ..... 81
Upheaval Buckling Behaviour of Flexible Flowlines
Elie Kodaissi ..... 89
Buckling of Offshore Pipelines
Shue-Yeong Chi and Yaw-Jeng Chiou ..... 95
Transient Thermal Stresses in Pressure Vessel and Pipelines
E.P. Russo, P.D. Herrington and W.W. St. Cyr ..... 102
Three-Dimensional Nonlinear Responses to Impact Loads on Free-Span Pipeline: Torsional Coupling and Load Steps
Jin S. Chung, Bao-rong Cheng and H.-P. Huttelmaier ..... 109
Pipeline Seabed Interaction, Free Span Development
W.H.G. Klomp, E.A. Hansen, Z. Chen, R. Bijker and M.B. Bryndum ..... 117
Deep Sea Pipeline Collapse Under Combined Loads of External Pressure, Bending, and Tension
Robin Li and Richard D. Haun ..... 123
Review of Free Spanning Pipelines
Kjell Arild Anfinsen ..... 129
Evaluation of Fishing Gear Induced Pipeline Damage
C.P. Ellinas, B. King and R. Davies ..... 134
Hydrodynamic Forces on Piggyback Pipelines
M.L. Jakobsen and P. Sayer ..... 142
Wave Force Evaluation on the Kalstø Pipeline Concrete Tunnel
Alf Tørum, Martin Mathiesen, Knut Waagaard and Henning Carlsen ..... 147
Flow Field Along a Flat Surface with a Parallel Placed Cylinder
Y. Yüksel, V. Atli and E. Özkan (Çevik) ..... 157
The Irregular Wave Induced Seepage Force on the Bottom of a Circular Cylinder
Dahong Qiu and Qilong Wang ..... 162
Scale Effects When Investigating Wave-Induced In-Line Forces on a Cylinder Horizontally Placed Near the Bottom
W. Dursthoff and A. Sakout ..... 170
Forces on Pipelines in Oblique Attack: Steady Current and Waves
Andrzej Kozakiewicz, Jørgen Fredsøe and B. Mutlu Sumer ..... 174
A Design of Flexible Riser Pipe with Composite Material
Y. Makino, T. Fuku, K. Ishii, M. Yoshizawa and H. Wada ..... 184
Steel Catenary Risers for Deep Water Applications
C.P. Pesce, J.A.P. Aranha, C.A. Martins and M.O. Pinto ..... 190
Optimal Control of the Heave Motion of Marine Cable/Subsea-Unit Systems
S. Huang and D. Vassalos ..... 203
Importance of Nonlinearities in Static and Dynamic Analyses of Marine Risers
YeongSoo Bae and Michael M. Bernitsas ..... 209
Iterative Frequency Domain Solution for Nonlinear Riser Response
Amiya Kumar Basu ..... 219
Nonlinear Static and Dynamic Analysis of Three-Dimensional Flexible Risers
Takashi Sakamoto and Roger E. Hobbs ..... 227
Effects of Flexible Joints on the 3-D Nonlinear Coupled Responses of a Long Vertical Pipe
Bao-Rong Cheng, Jin S. Chung and Zhao-Chang Zheng ..... 236
Effect of Axial Deformation on the Equilibrium Configurations of Marine Cables
Somchai Chucheepsakul, Tseng Huang and Pichet Laohapotjanart ..... 244
Model Experiments on Thruster Assisted Mooring System
Masahiko Nakamura, Wataru Koterayama and Hiroyuki Kajiwara ..... 249
Anchor Mooring Line Configuration Analysis
S. Bang and R.J. Taylor ..... 255
Axial Fatigue Characteristics of Large Diameter Spiral Strands
Amir Alani and Mohammed Raoof ..... 260
Behaviour of Large Diameter Wire Ropes
Mohammed Raoof and Ivana Kraincanic ..... 266
Modelling Axial Compression Fatigue in Fibre Ropes
J.W.S. Hearle, R.E. Hobbs, M.S. Overington and S.J. Banfield ..... 273
Map Based Navigation for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles
S.T. Tuohy, J.J. Leonard, J.G. Bellingham, N.M. Patrikalakis and C. Chryssostomidis ..... 278
Field Experiments on an Intelligent Towed Vehicle "Flying Fish"
W. Koterayama, S. Yamaguchi and M. Nakamura ..... 287
Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Flow Past X-35 Hull
T. Sarkar, P.G. Sayer and S.M. Fraser ..... 292
Study on the Control System of the Underwater Manipulator
Eiji Shintaku and Yoichi Ogawara ..... 299
Climbing Robot for Underwater Cleaning
H. Haferkamp, Fr.-W. Bach, M. Rachkov and J. Seevers ..... 305
The Creep of Saline Ice at Low Stresses and High Temperatures
Jacqueline A. Richter-Menge and Gordon F.N. Cox ..... 312
On the Indentation of a Blunt Ice Wedge
A.P.S. Selvadurai and K. Sepehr ..... 317
Shear Strength of Ice Rubble in Laboratory Tests
Eila Lehmus and Tuomo Kärnä ..... 323
Yield Conditions of an Assembly of Discrete Ice Floes
Mohamed Sayed, Venkata R. Neralla and Stuart B. Savage ..... 330
Finite Element Analysis of the Creep of Debris Containing Thin Ice Bodies
F. Azizi and W.B. Whalley ..... 336
Satellite Remote Sensing Tools for Sea Ice Engineering
Alain Cavanié, Robert Ezraty and Francis Gohin ..... 342
Potential Resistance of the Kara Sea Ice Cover
V.P. Gavrilo, S.M. Kovalev, G.A. Lebedev and O.A. Nedoshivin ..... 345
Short Term Variations of Sea Ice Cover
L.E. Chouinard, L. Garrigues, V.R. Neralla and V.R. Neralla ..... 349
Interannual Variability of the Ice Cover in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas
L.E. Chouinard, L. Garrigues and V.R. Neralla ..... 357
Seismic Activity of Landfast Ice
V.A. Nikitin, V.N. Smirnov, A.I. Shushlebin and I.B. Sheikin ..... 364
Seasonal Variability of Sea Ice Sizes and Thickness on the Northern Sakhalin Shelf
A.M. Polomoshnov, P.A. Truskov and S.A. Pokrashenko ..... 369
Simulation of the Ice-Structure Interaction Under the Parabolic Strength Criterion for Ice
D.G. Matskevitch ..... 374
Abrasion Mode of a Circular Cylindrical Concrete Structure Due to Sea Ice Movement
Yoshishige Itoh, Yoshihiro Tanaka, Alberto Delgado and Hiroshi Saeki ..... 381
Dynamic Responses of Highway Bridge Under Shock Forces of Icefloe
Zhi-rui Cai, Jin-ji Li, Xiao-ming Sun, Xian-yi Men and De-yi Jin ..... 389
The Structure of Internal Stresses in the Uncompacted Ice Cover
K.K. Sukhorukov ..... 393
Mechanisms of Ice Gouging
Shinji Kioka and Hiroshi Saeki ..... 398
Ice-Structure Dynamic Interaction: Failure Ice Model
Alexander T. Bekker ..... 403
Joint Probability of Environmental Loads on Marine Structures
De Fu Liu, Yong Chun Yang, Chao Wang and Jian Gang Shi ..... 408
Recent Advances in Ice Interaction and Force Estimation Processes for Vertical Structures
A.V.M. Arunachalam ..... 412
Ice Conditions Along the North-East Passage in View of Ship Trafficability Studies
Kaj Riska ..... 420
Statistics of Ice-Structure Interaction
Juri Kajaste-Rudnitski ..... 428
Influence of Cavitation on the Performance of Canadian R-Class Icebreaker Propellers in Blocked Flows
Dan Walker, Neil Bose, Hajime Yamaguchi and Stephen J. Jones ..... 434
Investigation of Ice-Resistant Coatings Used to Protect Ice-Breaker Hull
V.A. Babsev and G.P. Shemendjuk ..... 440
Influence of Saline Frozen Ground on VLF and LF Radio Wave Propagation Parameters in the Arctic Shore Regions
A.D. Frolov and I.V. Fediukine ..... 444
New Ideas on Aircraft Icing Forecast: First Example and Experiences
Werner Fuchs and Klaus-Peter Schickel ..... 451
Video Monitoring of Atmospheric Icing
J.B. Wareing and P.A. Chetwood ..... 456
Cable Twisting Due to Atmospheric Icing
Pierre McComber, Jacques Druez and Konstantin Savadjiev ..... 461
Experimental Verification of a Pendant Ice Formation Model
Krzysztof Szilder, Tom Forest and Edward P. Lozowski ..... 469
A Study of Surface Conductivity and Flashover Voltages of Ice Samples Formed Under Various Freezing Conditions
M. Farzaneh, X. Chen and J. Zhang ..... 476
Structure of Ice Grown on High Voltage Conductors
M. Farzaneh, J. Bouillot, Y. Teisseyre, E.C. Svensson and R.L. Donaberger ..... 482
Challenges for the Development of Hydrocarbon Fields in the Barents Sea
Ove T. Gudmestad, Arnt Olufsen and Per Strass ..... 485
Petroleum Exploration Opportunities on the U.S.-Russia Chukchi Sea Continental Shelf
T. Warren, K.W. Sherwood, D.K. Thurston, V.F. Kruglyak, S.A. Zerwick, O.V. Shcherban and A.V. Grevtsev ..... 493
Northern Gateway Oil Terminal Study: Phase 1
Tor K. Vikhamar and Marsel Gubaydulin ..... 501
New Challenges for the Pipeline Engineer in the Russian Arctic
R.J. Brown ..... 507
Observations of Sea Ice and Icebergs in the Western Barents Sea During the Winter of 1987
Sveinung Løset and Torkild Carstens ..... 514
A Method of Estimating Sea Ice Flexural Strength Based on Hydrometeorological Data
V.P. Gavrilo, S.M. Kovalev, G.A. Lebedev and O.A. Nedoshivin ..... 521
The Ocean Drilling Program in Fram Strait: A Case Study of the Use of Ice Charts to Predict the Probabilitiy of Ice-Free Conditions
Peter Wadhams and Maria Pia Casarini ..... 529
Operating Requirements for and Historical Operations of Arctic Offshore Drilling Systems in the United States
Jim Regg, John Breitmeier and Jeff Walker ..... 537
Reliability Based Pipeline Design and Integrity Assessment: Pipeline Industry on the Verge
T. Bjornsen, O. Hagen and K.J. Mork ..... 540
Pore-Pressure Gradients in the Proximity of a Submarine Buried Pipeline
W. Magda ..... 548